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UNESCO Roundtable Submission (WIP)

My name is Fred Garnett and I am a UK educationalist who has worked in many aspects of education and digital learning since 1979.
I am now part of the World Heutagogy group who published the book Self-Determined Learning in 2013 (Bloomsbury).
As a consequence we run World Heutagogy Day every year on 23rd September picking a theme and expanding our ideas.
As we are spread globally we do this as a (online) Curated Conversation where a number of participants, usually around 12, summarise their thoughts/ideas or research into 50 words.
We try to arrive at a shared summative view by highlighting the themes that emerge from the Curated Conversation, using a Wordle, and elaborating on them.
We used this approach in the introductory What is Heutagogy? (2013)

And later in 2016 with Creativity and Learning (as Heutagogy is perhaps the Pedagogy of Creative Learning). These slides also include a guided explanation of how Curated Conversations work.

Consequently in discussing how we might submit to your excellent initiative on Futures of Education we thought we should use the format for collaborative presentations we had developed ourselves and we have produced a Curated Conversation which is now online and attached to this email in Keynote and PowerPoint formats which is displayed below;

Continue Reading »

Heutagogy for UNESCO 

Is Heutagogy the Future of Education?

In Wired for Culture Mark Pagel points out that

 “Modern humans seem, uniquely among animals, capable of something that psychologists and anthropologists call cultural or social learning”.

Homo Sapiens rise to civilisation was based on this capability for learning but, on the many occasions that we have tried to design an education system for our species, we have invariably failed to improve on our original ability to learn socially. In Plato’s Academy 2500 years ago Socrates was already warning that the new-fangled invention of writing with symbolic language would result in something poorer than existing oral culture. We were about to become mediated by tools less flexible than our face-to-face conversational framework.

Socrates was talking during the first axial age when the settlement-based civilisations of the northern hemisphere of planet Earth switched to an underpinning metaphor of life that was based on a materialist creator God, because we were building cultures out of the crude raw materials we extracted from nature.

Universities, whether Arabic or Western, were originally built around sharing the ideas captured in the books that Socrates had warned about writing in the first place. Universities were originally built on the principle of disseminating this new monotheism (the only basis on which a Royal Charter would be granted in the UK) and when Paris and Bologna spotted that self-organised “communities of scholars” were visiting their cities with money to spend they incorporated universities in order to benefit from the cash spend of scholars; nothing new there then. Universities were built in order to take money off scholars whilst drilling them to think in a singular fashion based on a “learning by rote” copying down of rare and selected texts.

Fortunately the medieval university evolved the Liberal Arts model of Education which, at Bachelors level, involved the development of multiple skills of expression (music, rhetoric, grammar, etc) and only at Masters level was subject mastery (hence the name) the basis of education. This was eventually replace by the integrated Prussian model of a “nation-building” education during the nineteenth-century when the nation-state became fashionable as did national languages, a national curriculum and standardisation of all things.

The 7 Liberal Arts; Grammar Rhetoric Logic (Dialectic) Music Geometry Mathematics Astronomy

When, in 1970 as a school leaver, I came to choose between going to an English University, where the purpose of studying was driven by the Oxbridge model of training colonial administrators who could run the British Empire, or going to a Polytechnic to gain the skills necessary to maintain the factories of the Industrial Revolution, I was completely bemused. The British Empire had effectively collapsed in 1956 (Suez crisis) whilst British industry had been in terminal decline after Bretton Woods (1946) which ensured the loss of the closed markets that the Empire had previously guaranteed. I chose instead to enter the cultural industries (popular music) that the creative working class had spontaneously created during the 1960s using the tools made available by the Analogue Revolution. With the exception of some Art Colleges, usually seen as places for school children who had failed in the examinations of the formal education system, as John Lennon, Keith Richard Pete Townsend had (and in differing ways Mary Quant and Pauline Boty), there was no education available for the fastest-growing sector of the British Economy. Why? Continue Reading »

Heutagogy for Teachers

World Heutagogy Day 2020

World Heutagogy Day on 23rd September is when we both celebrate the publication of the first book on heutagogy, Self-Determined Learning edited by Stewart Hase and Chris Kenyon, and also try to both extend our understanding of heutagogy and identify new practices. The slideshare “What is Heutagogy” produced as a curated conversation by the authors of this collection of essays on the practice of heutagogy is a good introduction to heutagogy and reflects where we were with our understanding back in 2013.

Developing Heutagogy This year, because of the remarkable work of Vijaya Bhanu Kote a headteacher of a primary school in Andhara Pradesh India, we are focussing on “Heutagogy for Teachers” based on sharing her work in developing her school into a heutagogy school. This consists of more than just an abstract declaration that the school will practice heutagogy. It involves the very practical activity of training teachers in methods in which they can help their primary school children become what Vijaya calls “heutagogs” and producing a training guide. Remarkably Vijaya has involved the parents at her school who also become “heutagogs” and are involved helping their children become self-determined learners, or “heutagogs”. She has summarised her work in the following presentation.

Implementing Heutagogy for Teachers 

All teachers want their learners to do well; they want them to thrive, develop and grow. In the main their institutions get in the way of this ambition. Schools mistakenly measure success at the institutional level through examination results.  Educational “success” is quantified and measured in exam results, still based on what we call the content fallacy.

The content fallacy is the belief that education is entirely about the transfer of pre-defined subject knowledge from the almost-full memory of an active teacher into the empty memory cells of passive learners.

Pedagogy, as one theory of teaching, is about the better design of that content transfer. Pedagogy starts with the subject knowledge as “content” to be transferred from teacher to learner taken as a given. 900 years ago it was just copying a book in your own handwriting. In the 21st century it is writing down lecture notes as dictated by a teacher. Learners are seen as empty vessels into which we pour endless chunks of content to be memorised and our “high-stakes assessment” system is there to police that memorisation. In short, schools are not learner-centric and teachers are not rewarded for putting learners, and learning first, but for exam results. How can we improve that? Continue Reading »

The Chocolate Cafe Manifesto

For Learning after Lockdown; This blog is about my ideas and work connected to Heutagogy, what Stewart Hase defines as “self-determined learning” and which I am interested in as a way of enabling learner-centred learning in the UK (and elsewhere). We think that, following the pandemic, as a “new normal” is introduced in the UK schools will not be capable of 100% attendance and will have to design for 50/50 learning. Arguably this might force schools to recognise that they will have to “trust the learner” for a change and allow some learning agency into UK schools. Schools will become “time poor” so they will have to become “learning-rich” This blog post looks at some ways in which that might be achieved.

Introduction (Secondary Education UK); For reasons to do with the Brainsrusting group who are discussing this issue and writing the “manifesto” we are focussing on Secondary Education in the UK, although the principles and thoughts we share might be useful anywhere. We met monthly at The Chocolate Cafe in Canterbury (famous for its Cathedral School 1000 years ago) and have debated how we might share our discussion and ideas as a “Manifesto for Learning” so here it is/will be.

50/50 Learning; We think that social distancing will require schools to offer only 50% of time in the classroom compared to the previous 100%. We are also assuming that UK (English) schools for the next academic year 20/21 will continue to follow the rigid OFSTED driven high-stakes achievement oriented education model that was introduced in the UK to “make sure the sixties never happens again” (PM Margaret Thatcher). From that perspective the 50% in classroom time will arguably remain the same but the 50% “beyond the classroom” learning time might allow some learning agency for schoolchildren. It is in this new “heutagogic learning time” that some freedom of learning might emerge. Our hierarchical schools made now be time poor but they can become “learning rich” instead.

Fast Education/Slow Learning; We need to design an education system that isn’t just concerned with the unchallenging “memorization” of “facts” the so-called “learning by rote” that is the hallmark of our exam-driven secondary system; what I call “Fast Education”. We also need to allow for the thoughtful, reflective “Eureka” process of “slow learning” where we make sense of the world for ourselves, to be part of our education system. Daniel Kahneman talked of “Thinking Fast and Slow” and showed how “slow thinking” is how we make sense and create our own meaning, whereas as “fast thinking” is about developing high speed answers to known questions. Our secondary education is almost entirely concerned with “fast thinking” and so points students at clearly defined subject areas where the teacher knows the answer. This is an education system that is good for providing clear answers for exams, but no-good for solving-problems and enabling sense-making when events diverge from the norm; as in pandemics. Here are our 4 big ideas; Continue Reading »

 World Heutagogy Day 2019 #wHday19

Every year on 26th September we celebrate the publication of the first book on Heutagogy in 2013 called Self-Determined Learning, for that is what it is. Edited by the (fathers) of Heutagogy Stewart Hase and Chris Kenyon it featured a range of contributions about how we might define, describe and so enable self-determined learning. That was just a start, as we now run World Heutagogy Day every year.

In response to Greta Thunberg’s call for a climate strike we are looking this year at How Can We Green Our Learning?  World I’ve been running workshops at New Cross Learning to both turn that into a Green Library with resources to help #GreenMyLearning, and to do some thinking about what I have learnt in 40 years of trying to Green My Own Learning. Ive done a lot starting with discovery the (father) of Green Anarchism Kropotkin and his alt.Darwin view of Mutual Aid. Curiously, like David Bowie they both lived in Bromley…  I’ve been a Governor of a Green Research organisation, CoPIRG, done 2 Masters theses on the Environmental Impact of Computing, I’ve Greened My Teaching, Greened my Institution, set up a Green Education Centre, set up a Green Transition Town,  created Green Money and abandoned my car for walking and public transport in 2008. This is how I’ve worked on making my own learning as green as I’m allowed to…

World Heutagogy Day, held annually every 26th September, we update both our thinking and our practice on Heutagogy with a discussion around a topic, which we collate into a Curated Conversation. The Curated Conversation is a kind of “wisdom of crowds” approach which allows shared themes to emerge and present a diverse, but collaborative, view of our thinking. We do this by collecting individual contributions of 50 words each answering the same question. So How Do Green Our Learning in 50 words? Contributions as follows;

How Do We Green Our Learning

Theme1 Ecosystems

Fred Garnett; “To Green our learning we must learn to learn from nature and not just receive instruction from texts
Nature talks to us in waves and particles. If we ride the waves together we can transcend our particular limitations. We are nature and it is our shared ecosystem of resources”

Nigel Ecclesfield “Knowing the living world requires me to understand that I am a body/ecology with five times as many live, bacterial cells as there are cells from my own DNA and that I need to understand this and many other interpenetrations of being we call ecologies. I also need to learn how to contribute to nurturing the meta-ecology we call Earth.

Stewart Hase ‘To Green our Learning, we need to enable learners: to use their natural, innate ability to learn rather than interfere with a perfect system by teaching; and to find their natural talents and maximise them. Learning is a natural ecosystem that we should enhance rather than interfere with

Theme 2 Planet & Lifestyles

Vijaya Bhanu Kote; “To Green our learning, we must green our life styles. To Green our learning, we must implement the 3R’s formula in every walk of life. Teach the kids the same. Life style change towards Greening shall lead us to pollution free planet. Sustainability must be a deed rather than a word.

Lemke Kamps ACTION! Protecting our Earth is important. Positive education and awareness are the key. Green activities will give us the mindset to realize our planet’s value. When we all work together, we can minimize the damage we cause to our rare planet and set the course for a brighter, greener future

Bridget McKenzieFor the planet to sustain life so that we can live in abundance, we need to learn together and fast. Our cultural values need to shift towards an ecological way of knowing. We say the devil is in the detail, but we forget it’s also in the patterns

Theme3 Movement & Natural Curiosity

Paul Chapman We can green our learning by going out into nature rather than just sitting and looking at photos of Ladywell Fields. I learnt more by putting on waders and walking in Deptford Creek than from 100 conferences. You need to see and smell the natural world to learn from it

Kate Faragher We Green our Learning by moving our bodies.  When we walk and talk, we learn and listen in a different way. When we move, dance or exercise after study or work, we embed the learning into our bodies.  When we exercise we engage our mind differently and can innovate.

Tony Wheeler “Be curious, confident and question authority (what’s in it for them?).
Be a generalist, look for connections.
Never specialise in someone else’s facts and tests.
Open your heart and find people to help you understand, value and change things.
Have fun and tell better stories than growth fixated consumer fetishists.”

Ian Woolley “I green my learning by asking questions about the things that I use. What is it made of? Where did it come from? Why does it look like that? Who made it? Can I take it apart? Can I adapt it? Can I fix it? Do I need it?

And 2 more themes which are… Continue Reading »

The Heutagogy of Place

The Republic of Learning

Republic of Learning Overview; It is my belief that we are naturally curious and carry within us both the desire to learn and many capabilities that enable us to learn. As a species we’ve long passed on our learning experiences mimetically, not genetically, and have had several, flawed but useful, attempts at codifying the learning process, without getting it right yet. These include Plato’s Academy, Songlines, Sufi Poetry, the Liberal Arts, Native American cosmologies, Madrassa’s, Universities, Shamans, Inns, School, Mechanics Institutes, Polytechnics, folk clubs and the Republic of Letters to mention a few. These were all temporarily useful but perhaps, from later perspectives, somewhat eccentric in conception as they just embodied the emergent wisdom of their time whilst offering practical and workable solutions to the problems of *their* time in particular. Nonetheless everything we have done before provides us with some raw material for further reflection and from which we might usefully learn. In the main we tend to be lazy and allow whatever seems to work to remain in place, especially when they reinforce our existing prejudices.
I’d like to attempt to codify a fresh learning process, my own “temporarily useful eccentricity” based on my own slowly emerging wisdom from engaging with learning in various ways ever since my Mum made me sit in her library for a couple of hours every day when I was in a British primary school in Germany. I call it the Republic of Learning.

Heutagogy and Place
This blog is about rethinking learning and pedagogy using an approach concerned with self-determined learning, or heutagogy. We’ve documented many elements of that and further evolved the concept with new learning design ideas like the PAH Continuum, reflections on how we learn like “double-loop learning,” addressing practical issues on heutagogy resources for institutions, and adding a fresh thematic discussion around heutagogy each year since 2013 on World Heutagogy Day; 23rd September. This year we looked more closely at what is meant by “learner-centred learning.” Which could be a new starting point for learning design. However, overall, we have mostly looked at how heutagogy can ameliorate the faults of the education institutions that we already have. What has been missing so far, I think, is how we might design “for heutagogy” and what that might look like as a learning place. Bernard with his work on heutagogy resources and Vijaya Bhanu Kate with her work on the practice of primary school teachers have begun to address this issue to some extent.

Self-determined learning places
What we have argued for from the perspective of the individual thus far is that everyone can be a “self-determined learner” What I want to initiate with the Republic of Learning is the idea of self-determined learning places.
I’ve recently been involved in a European Erasmus Plus project The Origin of Spaces, looking at how next-generation work-spaces might be designed, what qualities they might need, and how we can help anticipate a better CoWorking future that is ecologically-balanced and serves it’s community. This wasn’t a project about abstract, or idealised, concepts, it was best on the best practice of five existing places. The Darwin eco-systeme in Bordeaux, LX Factory in Lisboa, ZAWP in Bilbao, ROJC in Pula with the London partner, Lewisham, learning from them and instigating new local projects like the award-winning Place:Ladywell.

Place Design and the Origin of Spaces
I learnt a lot about “place design” as we built a Toolbox to capture and share our best practice with others, but it also made me reflect on two broader issues. Firstly the long and evolving history of “Third Places” (often coffee shops) which over 1000 years, perhaps longer in the Middle East, have been instrumental in bringing about institutional change (for lawyers, banks, insurance and much more) as they were thinking places based on conversations. As a Fellow of the RSA I am well aware that we emerged from a coffee shop 260 years ago and have just redesigned the RSA House to have more of a coffee shop atmosphere with Rawthmells.
Secondly how these third places help shape the city so that its “City-zens” might have a better “social-infrastructure” through which to live their lives. Currently we are plagued by the dead-end of so-called “Smart Cities” (which is about the remote management of the citizenry from City Hall) with its corporate focus on selling technical equipment, and the rising towers student housing (which is about establishing degrees as an exportable product) neither of which are developing a fresh social infrastructure for our times.
Self-determined places of working; What the #oosEU project showed me, as I had known in the 20th century, is that innovative social design is a bottom-up process. Each of our 4 European partners responded individually, and uniquely, to pressing local social problems. Bordeaux with the closure of the working industrial left-bank (the non-UNESCO part of the city), Lisboa with the closure of a fabulous print works in working-class Alcantara, Bilbao, with the city plan to turn Zorrazaurte into a rich-persons marina (the same problem we had faced in Deptford Creek) and Pula with its desire to rebuild Civil Society after a Civil War (as we might face post-Brexit in Britain). Each project had created self-identified solutions to local community problems and sharing their (social) learning was a key part of their self-defined identity.

Erasmus and the Republic of Letters
Working on an Erasmus Plus project for the EU leads, of course, to Erasmus. A German scholar who, arguably, initiated the Republic of Letters in the 16th century, using the memorable phrase in 1522 that “I am a Citizen of the Republic of Letters.” Serious scholars in his time, before science, were natural philosophers with no particular place to go to share their “uncharted” learning; so they wrote to each other. Effectively they were writing new works from which they learnt and shared their learning with like-minded thinkers. These letters were more like “commonplace books” and would typically including conversational responses in reply to letters received, fresh ideas and observations, rubbings, perhaps from carvings in churches, pressed plants (both with commentary) drawings and designs, perhaps maps, poems as well as the bon mots of others. These letters represented a snapshot of the thinking of the author and others worthy of commentary and they were part of a shared endeavour to better understand the world, especially nature. A second phase of evolution of the Republic of Letters were neighbourhoods, such as Lime Street in London and the still existing Royal Mile in Prague, where natural philosophers, often alchemists, lived adjacently and often hung signs revealing their interests which can still be seen in Prague (Royal Mile) and even in the City of London (Lime Street) today.

Learning in the Republic of Letters
If you visited a place which was part of the Republic of Letters four hundred years ago, you could review the Letters as discussion threads, like an online discussion thread today. From your own reading you could draw your own conclusions and then walk away to share your thoughts and fresh perspectives in conversation with others. No exam or formal assessment required only the ability that you could hold your end up in discussion with others; and your interest. How wonderful! But then… Continue Reading »

Institutions or…Building a Learning Infrastructure

Yesterday I talked of how creative insights into how we might teach emerge from “bumping into learners expectations,” and of how some wonderful people had created new tools, or new models of learning, as they had worked their way closer to learners expectations (within the limits of their institutions). In our experience learning is an emergent process, so if you pay attention to learners, and to what they are saying to you, then what you need to do to support their learning will become clear. If you consistently pay attention to learners and the learning needs that they articulate, then you can build a learning infrastructure that supports the learning of others.

In the original Academy, Plato’s in Greece 2,500 years ago, learning was a series of conversations. It wasn’t given to you for just turning up, it was something you made through active participation. In medieval guilds, still found in the City of London, “mastery” in a craft was demonstrated through a process of “show and tell” – this is what I do, this is how I do it.

More recently the first British e-learning guru, Diana Laurillard, discussed how we should be building a “conversational framework for learning” and Gilly Salmon talked of e-mentoring as being a key element of e-learning. My friends in Romania, the Alternativa Universitate, who have their own learning model, or learning journey, organise learning around peer-to-peer mentoring, which is, perhaps, how Romanians share understanding.

So we are forever becoming really close to building enduring “learning infrastructures” but only when we can create alternative spaces in which we can follow the learning, rather than the more traditional follow the money (Paris, Bologna, London I’m looking at you).  Nigel and I have talked about using new participatory digital tools to help create organisational Architectures of Participation. Perhaps we should have described this process as creating “learning Architectures of Participation. We discussed some of the elements of this in Before and After Institutions where we are, perhaps, really describing how we might be Co-creating Learning Institutions with the learners (who turn up and participate). We’ve already described how we might be Co-Creating Open Scholarship so there may be some clues in there.

Since 2010 I’ve been trying to solve the practical problems as to how we might enable learners to create their own contexts for learning. I’ve done this, with the help of many others, by trying to build “Ambient Learning Cities,” starting in Manchester, where we have been trying to “transform the learning environment” by creating learning “beyond the classroom.” The first thing we learned was that nobody wants you to transform anything, even if they are offered €3m (City of Manchester) or £88k (MOSI). We were constantly bumping into institutional prejudices, instead of learners expectations, and discovered their rigid constraints (we have everything we need thank you), rather than participatory engagement. This is great for forcing you into solving new problems, which we did. We replaced textbooks with “digital Cabinets of Curiosities” and high-stakes assessment with Aggregate then Curate, our social media participation model of learning.

The second thing that we learned is that the classroom is a metaphor for learning. Continue Reading »

Teaching & learner-centred learning

In A History of Teaching in 10 Lectures I discussed the quality of accidentally discovering truths about teaching by bumping into the expectations of learners.
This process of bumping into the expectations of learners ended up, for me, in developing a technique I called educational brokering. Captured well in this interview with David Jennings on creating “learner-generated contexts.

Other teachers developed other techniques, and I referred to Bernie Dodge of San Diego who invented WebQuests, or rather co-created WebQuests, with an SDSU class. Back in 1994 and lacking material (or perhaps being unprepared) Bernie decided to run a class as a debate discussing the question “is browsing learning?” He had noticed that people using the, then newly invented, web spent a lot of time “just browsing, thanks.” He thought his class would be split 50/50 and his unprepared 50 minutes would pass easily by in the gentle to-and-fro of debate. Instead EVERYONE said “browsing IS learning, thanks” and so they spent the next 48 minutes inventing WebQuests in order to capture browsing as learning. Or described as Heutagogy, 48 minutes were spent in the co-creation of a self-determined learning tool.

More explicit applied Heutagogy was displayed by the wonderful Thom Cochrane who took the PAH Continuum, which he discovered by just browsing, thanks, and Continue Reading »

Coventry University 19th September 2018

1. That’s what you are paid for!!!
After many years of teaching in the USA and the U.K. I got really good at teaching. I designed my courses, having got approval for the syllabus and curriculum, wrote the handbook, printed off the handouts, prepared the overheads and tried to replace the lecture with workshops, games and discussions. A few weeks into the first time I implemented this approach one of my students asked when I was going to lecture them. I smugly pointed out the genius of my alt.ed approach to which he replied
“You have to lecture us, that’s what you are paid for!”
(Or, put another way, discussion is not seen as “work” and they wanted to see me work “hard” for my money)
Lesson 1 is…?

2. Oxford University, the Lectern…
Of course when I got really good at lecturing, actually really good at e-learning, I was then asked to research it. We first developed the “Community Development Model of Learning” and I was asked to talk about it at Oxford University’s “Shock of the Old” in the new Said Business School in a state of the art lecture theatre. As we were all e-learning gurus they apologised for putting us in a “lecture” “theatre” but explained that they had invented the lecture when they were founded in 1093. They only had 30 books, all hand written, all locked away in the Library. They were unlocked, carried painfully from the library, rested on a “lectern” and then were read out to the assembly. So the original lecture came about because handwritten books were too expensive and each “pupil” was just making a personal copy for themselves to read and understand later; not in the “lecture.” So copying was the original form of education…
Lesson 2 is…?

3. Behind the desk or in front of the desk… (“Teaching” or content-delivery)
Once I had earned some confidence in the classroom I realised I needed to stand in front of the desk rather than behind it. Behind the desk, and the lectern, I was just the distant deliverer of content, in the 1,000 year old Oxford University style, a fake expert because I owned THE text book (just a book of text!). In front of the desk I was open to questioning, an approachable facilitator of learning. Q&A stimulates learning, if your students pop down to the orchard and chat (e-chat is not cheat).
Lesson 3 is…?

4. Misunderstanding the Academy (let students create the taxonomy)
Despite the Renaissance #fakenews about Platos Academy it had a completely non-academic model of learning. It was in 3 parts. Building, Orchard and Gymnasium (German style). Here was no syllabus or pedagogy. You talked to Socrates in the building, who moaned that the emergence of books would ruin memory, chatted to your mates in the garden (read Platos Republic for lots of bits from this part) then exercised to refresh your body and brain. Learning was whatever was left over after that three-part process. Pedagogically curated Education emerged in the exceptionally mechanical 19th century when, first, the Museum Act provided a justification for taxonomies and, second, the Education Act encouraged local authorities to open schools; oh dear
Lesson 4 Is…?

5. Community of Scholars (or community of teachers)
My very first class, scheduled for 50 minutes, lasted just 10 minutes. I rushed through the material delivering all the content I had prepared, asked if there were any questions and fled the room. Straight into the staff room where I poured out my problems to my colleagues. They patiently explained that you had enough material to fill the time IF you included students and went through the material on a step by step basis checking If they had understood what you had said and what problems they had in understanding what you were saying. And add some Q&A which eventually…
Lesson 5 is…?

Continue Reading »

Heutagogy and the Digital Future of Education

Presentation at DTCE Manchester University

This is an overview of my work on digital projects since 1995 and how it might inform us about the future.

If you want to ask questions or have some of the points expanded please post questions below;

Fred Garnett 24 May 2018